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Brazil From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the country. For other uses, see Brazil (disambiguation). Page semi-protected Federative Republic of Brazil República Federativa do Brasil (Portuguese) Flag Coat of arms Motto: "Ordem e Progresso" (Portuguese) "Order and Progress" Anthem: Hino Nacional Brasileiro (Portuguese) "Brazilian National Anthem" National seal Selo Nacional do Brasil National Seal of Brazil (color).svg (Portuguese) "National Seal of Brazil" Capital Brasília 15°45′S 47°57′W / 15.75°S 47.95°W / -15.75; -47.95 Largest city São Paulo Official language(s) Portuguese Ethnic groups (2008 [1] ) 48.43% White 43.80% Brown (Multiracial) 6.84% Black 0.58% Asian 0.28% Amerindian Demonym Brazilian Government Federal presidential constitutional republic - President Dilma Rousseff (PT) - Vice President Michel Temer (PMDB) - President of the Chamber of Deputies Marco Maia (PT) - President of the Senate José Sarney (PMDB) - Chief Justice Cezar Peluso Legislature National Congress - Upper House Federal Senate - Lower House Chamber of Deputies Independence from Kingdom of Portugal - Declared 7 September 1822 - Recognized 29 August 1825 - Republic 15 November 1889 - Current constitution 5 October 1988 Area - Total 8,514,877 km2 (5th) 3,287,597 sq mi - Water (%) 0.65 Population - estimate 190,732,694 [2] (5th) - Density 22/km2 (182nd) 57/sq mi GDP (PPP) 2009 estimate - Total $2.013 trillion[3] - Per capita $10,513[3] GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate - Total $1.574 trillion[3] - Per capita $8,220[3] Gini (2009) 49.3[4] HDI (2010) 0.699[5] (high) (73th) Currency Real (R$) (BRL) Time zone BRT[6] (UTC-2 to -4[6]) - Summer (DST) BRST (UTC-2 to -4) Date formats dd/mm/yyyy (CE) Drives on the right ISO 3166 code BR Internet TLD .br Calling code +55 Brazil (pronounced /brəˈzɪl/ ( listen); Portuguese: Brasil, IPA: [bɾaˈziw]), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil[7][8] (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil, About this sound listen (help·info)), is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population.[9][10] It is the only Portuguese-speaking country in the Americas and the largest lusophone country in the world.[9] Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of over 7,491 kilometers (4,655 mi).[9] It is bordered on the north by Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and the French overseas department of French Guiana; on the northwest by Colombia; on the west by Bolivia and Peru; on the southwest by Argentina and Paraguay and on the south by Uruguay. Numerous archipelagos form part of Brazilian territory, such as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, and Trindade and Martim Vaz.[9] It has borders with all other South American countries apart from Ecuador and Chile. Brazil was a colony of Portugal from the landing of Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500 until 1815, when it was elevated to United Kingdom with Portugal and Algarves. The colonial bond was in fact broken in 1808, when the capital of the Portuguese Kingdom was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, after Napoleon invaded Portugal.[11] The independence from Portugal was achieved in 1822. Initially independent as the Empire of Brazil, the country has been a republic since 1889, although the bicameral legislature, now called Congress, dates back to 1824, when the first constitution was ratified.[11] Its current Constitution defines Brazil as a Federal Republic.[12] The Federation is formed by the union of the Federal District, the 26 States, and the 5,564 Municipalities.[12][13] The Brazilian economy is the world's eighth largest economy by nominal GDP[14] and the ninth largest by purchasing power parity.[15] Brazil is one of the world's fastest growing major economies. Economic reforms have given the country new international recognition.[16] Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, CPLP, Latin Union, the Organization of Ibero-American States, Mercosul and the Union of South American Nations, and is one of the BRIC Countries. Brazil is also home to a diversity of wildlife, natural environments, and extensive natural resources in a variety of protected habitats.[9] Contents [show] * 1 History o 1.1 Etymology o 1.2 Portuguese colonization and territorial expansion o 1.3 Independence and empire o 1.4 Old republic and Vargas era o 1.5 Military regime and contemporary era * 2 Geography o 2.1 Climate o 2.2 Biodiversity o 2.3 Environment * 3 Politics o 3.1 Law o 3.2 Foreign relations o 3.3 Military o 3.4 Administrative divisions * 4 Economy o 4.1 Components and energy o 4.2 Science and technology o 4.3 Transport * 5 Demographics o 5.1 Religion o 5.2 Urbanization o 5.3 Language * 6 Culture o 6.1 Literature o 6.2 Cuisine o 6.3 Sports * 7 See also * 8 References o 8.1 Bibliographic * 9 Further reading * 10 External links History Main article: History of Brazil Etymology Main article: Name of Brazil The etymology of Brazil remains unclear. Traditionally, the word "Brazil" comes from the brazilwood, a timber tree which many sailors traded from Brazilian regions to Europe in the 16th century.[17] In Portuguese brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from Latin brasa ("ember") and the suffix -il (from -iculum or -ilium).[18][19][20] This theory is taught as official in schools of Brazil and Portugal, but some[who?] Brazilian scholars have postulated that the word is older, being found in the language of ancient Phoenicians though some think it has Celtic origins.[21] These people kept the trade of a red dye extracted from a mineral which operated mines in Iberia to Ireland. In fact, the legendary Irish island of Hy-Brazil is seen by some[who?] (and was also to 16th century scholars) as one of the most likely etymological sources for "Brazil".[17] In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama" — it was the name the natives gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees." Portuguese colonization and territorial expansion Main article: Colonial Brazil See also: Indigenous peoples in Brazil and Slavery in Brazil The land now called Brazil was claimed by Portugal in April 1500, on the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral.[22] The Portuguese encountered stone age natives divided into several tribes, most of whom shared the same Tupi-Guarani linguistic family, and fought among themselves.[23] Colonization was effectively begun in 1534—though the first settlement was founded in 1532—, when Dom João III divided the territory into twelve hereditary captaincies,[24][25] but this arrangement proved problematic and in 1549 the king assigned a Governor-General to administer the entire colony.[25][26] The Portuguese assimilated some of the native tribes[27] while others were enslaved or exterminated in long wars or by European diseases to which they had no immunity.[28][29] By the mid-16th century, sugar had become Brazil's most important export[23][30] and the Portuguese imported African slaves[31][32] to cope with the increasing international demand.[28][33] The first Christian mass in Brazil, 1500. Through wars against the French, the Portuguese slowly expanded their territory to the southeast, taking Rio de Janeiro in 1567, and to the northwest, taking São Luís in 1615.[34] They sent military expeditions to the Amazon rainforest and conquered British and Dutch strongholds,[35] founding villages and forts from 1669.[36] In 1680 they reached the far south and founded Sacramento on the bank of the Rio de la Plata, in the Eastern Strip region (present-day Uruguay).[37] At the end of the 17th century, sugar exports started to decline[38] but beginning in the 1690s, the discovery of gold by explorers in the region that would later be called Minas Gerais (General Mines) in current Mato Grosso and Goiás, saved the colony from imminent collapse.[39] From all over Brazil, as well as from Portugal, thousands of immigrants came to the mines.[40] The Spanish tried to prevent Portuguese expansion into the territory that belonged to them according to the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, and succeeded in conquering the Eastern Strip in 1777. However, this was in vain as the Treaty of San Ildefonso, signed in the same year, confirmed Portuguese sovereignty over all lands proceeding from its territorial expansion, thus creating most of the current Brazilian borders.[41] In 1808, the Portuguese royal family, fleeing the troops of the French Emperor Napoleon I that were invading Portugal and most of Central Europe, established themselves in the city of Rio de Janeiro, which thus became the seat of the entire Portuguese Empire.[42] In 1815 Dom João VI, then regent on behalf of his incapacitated mother, elevated Brazil from colony to sovereign Kingdom united with Portugal.[42] In 1809 the Portuguese invaded French Guiana (which was returned to France in 1817)[43] and in 1816 the Eastern Strip, subsequently renamed Cisplatina[44] (but Brazil lost it in 1828 when it became an independent nation known as Uruguay).[45] Independence and empire Main articles: Brazilian Independence and Empire of Brazil King João VI returned to Europe on 26 April 1821, leaving his elder son Prince Pedro de Alcântara as regent to rule Brazil.[46] The Portuguese government attempted to turn Brazil into a colony once again, thus depriving it of its achievements since 1808.[47] The Brazilians refused to yield and Prince Pedro stood by them declaring the country's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822.[48] On 12 October 1822, Pedro was declared the first Emperor of Brazil and crowned Dom Pedro I on 1 December 1822.[49] Declaration of the Brazilian independence by Emperor Pedro I on 7 September 1822. At that time almost all Brazilians were in favor of a monarchy and republicanism had little support.[50][51] The subsequent Brazilian War of Independence spread through almost the entire territory, with battles in the northern, northeastern, and southern regions.[52] The last Portuguese soldiers surrendered on 8 March 1824[53] and independence was recognized by Portugal on 29 August 1825.[54] The first Brazilian constitution was promulgated on 25 March 1824, after its acceptance by the municipal councils across the country.[55][56][57][58] Pedro I abdicated on 7 April 1831 and went to Europe to reclaim his daughter’s crown, leaving behind his five year old son and heir, who was to become Dom Pedro II.[59] As the new emperor could not exert his constitutional prerogatives until he reached maturity, a regency was created.[60] Disputes between political factions led to rebellions and an unstable, almost anarchical, regency.[61] The rebellious factions, however, were not in revolt against the monarchy,[62][63] even though some declared the secession of the provinces as independent republics, but only so long as Pedro II was a minor.[64] Because of this, Pedro II was prematurely declared of age and "Brazil was to enjoy nearly half a century of internal peace and rapid material progress."[65] Brazilian forces (in blue uniform) engage the Paraguayan army (some in red uniform and other shirtless) during the War of the Triple Alliance. Brazil won three international wars during the 58-year reign of Pedro II (the Platine War, the Uruguayan War and the War of the Triple Alliance)[66] and witnessed the consolidation of representative democracy, mainly due to successive elections and unrestricted freedom of the press.[67] Most importantly, slavery was extinguished after a slow but steady process that began with the end of the international traffic in slaves in 1850[68] and ended with the complete abolition of slavery in 1888.[69] The slave population had been in decline since Brazil's independence: in 1823, 29% of the Brazilian population were slaves but by 1887 this had fallen to 5%.[70] When the monarchy was overthrown on 15 November 1889[71] there was little desire in Brazil to change the form of government[72] and Pedro II was at the height of his popularity among his subjects.[73][74] However, he "bore prime, perhaps sole, responsibility for his own overthrow."[75] After the death of his two sons, Pedro believed that "the imperial regime was destined to end with him."[76] He cared little for the regime's fate[77][78] and so neither did anything, nor allowed anyone else to do anything, to prevent the military coup, backed by former slave owners who resented the abolition of slavery.[79][80][81] Old republic and Vargas era Main articles: República Velha, Estado Novo (Brazil), and Brazilian Second Republic The Brazilian coup d'état of 1930 raised Getúlio Vargas (center with military uniform but no hat) to power. He would rule the country for fifteen years. The "early republican government was little more than a military dictatorship. The army dominated affairs both at Rio de Janeiro and in the states. Freedom of the press disappeared and elections were controlled by those in power".[71] In 1894 the republican civilians rose to power, opening a "prolonged cycle of civil war, financial disaster, and government incompetence."[82] By 1902, the government began a return to the policies pursued during the Empire, policies that promised peace and order at home and a restoration of Brazil's prestige abroad.[82] and was successful in negotiating several treaties that expanded (with the purchase of Acre) and secured the Brazilian boundaries.[83] In the 1920s the country was plagued by several rebellions caused by young military officers.[84][85] By 1930, the regime was weakened and demoralized, which allowed the defeated presidential candidate Getúlio Vargas to lead a coup d'état and assume the presidency.[86] Vargas was supposed to assume the presidency temporarily but instead, he closed the National Congress, extinguished the Constitution, ruled with emergency powers and replaced the states' governors with his supporters.[87][88] In 1935 Communists rebelled across the country and made an unsuccessful bid for power.[89] The communist threat, however, served as an excuse for Vargas to launch another coup d'état in 1937 and Brazil became a full dictatorship.[90][91] The repression of the opposition was brutal with more than 20,000 people imprisoned, internment camps created for political prisoners in distant regions of the country, widespread torture by the government agents of repression, and censorship of the press.[92][93] Brazil remained neutral during the early years of World War II until the government declared war against the Axis powers in 1942.[94] Vargas then forced German, Japanese and Italian immigrants into concentration camps,[95] and, in 1944, sent troops to the battlefields in Italy.[96][97] With the allied victory in 1945 and the end of the Nazi-fascist regimes in Europe, Vargas's position became unsustainable and he was swiftly overthrown in a military coup.[98] Democracy was reinstated and General Eurico Gaspar Dutra was elected president and took office in 1946.[99] Vargas returned to power in 1951, this time democratically elected, but he was incapable of either governing under a democracy or of dealing with an active opposition, and he committed suicide in 1954.[100][101] Military regime and contemporary era Main articles: Military dictatorship (Brazil) and History of Brazil since 1985 Several brief interim governments succeeded after Vargas's suicide.[102] Juscelino Kubitscheck became president in 1956 and assumed a conciliatory posture towards the political opposition that allowed him to govern without major crises.[103] The economy and industrial sector grew remarkably,[104] but his greatest achievement was the construction of the new capital city of Brasília, inaugurated in 1960.[105] His successor was Jânio Quadros, who resigned in 1961 less than a year after taking office.[106] His vice-president, João Goulart, assumed the presidency, but aroused strong political opposition[107] and was deposed in April 1964 by a coup that resulted in a military regime.[108] The new regime was intended to be transitory[109] but it gradually closed in on itself and became a full dictatorship with the promulgation of the Fifth Institutional Act in 1968.[110] The repression of the dictatorship's opponents, including urban guerrillas,[111] was harsh, but not as brutal as in other Latin American countries.[112] Due to the extraordinary economic growth, known as an "economic miracle", the regime reached its highest level of popularity in the years of repression.[113] The transition from Fernando Henrique Cardoso to Luís Inácio Lula da Silva revealed that Brazil had finally succeeded in achieving its long-sought political stability. General Ernesto Geisel became president in 1974 and began his project of re-democratization through a process that he said would be "slow, gradual and safe."[114][115] Geisel ended the military indiscipline that had plagued the country since 1889,[116] as well as the torture of political prisoners, censorship of the press,[117] and finally, the dictatorship itself, after he extinguished the Fifth Institutional Act.[110] However, the military regime continued, under his chosen successor General João Figueiredo, to complete the transition to full democracy.[118] The civilians fully returned to power in 1985 when José Sarney assumed the presidency[119] but, by the end of his term, he had become extremely unpopular due to the uncontrollable economic crisis and unusually high inflation.[120] Sarney's unsuccessful government allowed the election in 1989 of the almost unknown Fernando Collor, who was subsequently impeached by the National Congress in 1992.[121] Collor was succeeded by his Vice-President Itamar Franco, who appointed Fernando Henrique Cardoso as Minister of Finance. Cardoso produced a highly successful Plano Real (Royal or Real Plan)[122] that granted stability to the Brazilian economy[123] and he was elected as president in 1994 and again in 1998.[124] The peaceful transition of power to Luís Inácio Lula da Silva, who was elected in 2002 and re-elected in 2006, proved that Brazil had finally succeeded in achieving its long-sought political stability.[125] Geography Main article: Geography of Brazil See also: List of countries and outlying territories by total area Topography map of Brazil. Brazil occupies a large area along the eastern coast of South America and includes much of the continent's interior,[126] sharing land borders with Uruguay to the south; Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest; Bolivia and Peru to the west; Colombia to the northwest; and Venezuela, Suriname, Guyana and the French overseas department of French Guiana to the north. It shares a border with every country in South America except for Ecuador and Chile. It also encompasses a number of oceanic archipelagos, such as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, and Trindade and Martim Vaz.[9] Its size, relief, climate, and natural resources make Brazil geographically diverse.[126] Including its Atlantic islands, Brazil lies between latitudes 6°N and 34°S, and longitudes 28° and 74°W. Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world, after Russia, Canada, China and the United States, and third largest in the Americas; with a total area of 8,514,876.599 square kilometers (3,287,612 sq mi),[127] including 55,455 square kilometers (21,411 sq mi) of water.[9] It spans three time zones; from UTC-4 in the western states, to UTC-3 in the eastern states (and the official time of Brazil) and UTC-2 in the Atlantic islands.[6] Brazilian topography is also diverse and includes hills, mountains, plains, highlands, and scrublands. Much of the terrain lies between 200 metres (660 ft) and 800 metres (2,600 ft) in elevation.[128] The main upland area occupies most of the southern half of the country.[128] The northwestern parts of the plateau consist of broad, rolling terrain broken by low, rounded hills.[128] The southeastern section is more rugged, with a complex mass of ridges and mountain ranges reaching elevations of up to 1,200 metres (3,900 ft).[128] These ranges include the Mantiqueira and Espinhaço mountains and the Serra do Mar.[128] In the north, the Guiana Highlands form a major drainage divide, separating rivers that flow south into the Amazon Basin from rivers that empty into the Orinoco River system, in Venezuela, to the north. The highest point in Brazil is the Pico da Neblina at 2,994 metres (9,823 ft), and the lowest is the Atlantic Ocean.[9] Brazil has a dense and complex system of rivers, one of the world's most extensive, with eight major drainage basins, all of which drain into the Atlantic.[129] Major rivers include the Amazon (the world's second-longest river and the largest in terms of volume of water), the Paraná and its major tributary the Iguaçu (which includes the Iguazu Falls), the Negro, São Francisco, Xingu, Madeira and Tapajós rivers.[129] Climate Main article: Climate of Brazil Snow in São Joaquim, Santa Catarina (South) and tropical climate in Cabedelo, Paraiba (Northeast). The climate of Brazil comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large area and varied topography, but most of the country is tropical.[9] According to the Köppen system, Brazil hosts five major climatic subtypes: equatorial, tropical, semiarid, highland tropical, temperate, and subtropical. The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from equatorial rainforests in the north and semiarid deserts in the northeast, to temperate coniferous forests in the south and tropical savannas in central Brazil.[130] Many regions have starkly different microclimates.[131][132] An equatorial climate characterizes much of northern Brazil. There is no real dry season, but there are some variations in the period of the year when most rain falls.[130] Temperatures average 25 °C (77 °F),[132] with more significant temperature variation between night and day than between seasons.[131] Over central Brazil rainfall is more seasonal, characteristic of a savanna climate.[131] This region is as extensive as the Amazon basin but has a very different climate as it lies farther south at a higher altitude.[130] In the interior northeast, seasonal rainfall is even more extreme. The semiarid climatic region generally receives less than 800 millimetres (31.5 in) of rain,[133] most of which generally falls in a period of three to five months of the year[134] and occasionally less than this, creating long periods of drought.[131] Brazil's 1877–78 Grande Seca (Great Drought), the most severe ever recorded in Brazil,[135] caused approximately half a million deaths.[136] The one from 1915 was devastating too.[137] South of Bahia, near São Paulo, the distribution of rainfall changes, with rain falling throughout the year .[130] The south enjoys temperate conditions, with cool winters and average annual temperatures not exceeding 18 °C (64.4 °F);[132] winter frosts are quite common, with occasional snowfall in the higher areas.[130][131] Biodiversity Main articles: Wildlife of Brazil and Deforestation in Brazil The Macaw is a typical animal of Brazil. The country has one of the world's most diverse populations of birds and amphibians. In the right the Amazon Rainforest, the largest tropical forest in the world.. Brazil's large territory comprises different ecosystems, such as the Amazon Rainforest, recognized as having the greatest biological diversity in the world,[138] with the Atlantic Forest and the Cerrado, sustaining the greatest biodiversity.[139] In the south, the Araucaria pine forest grows under temperate conditions.[139] The rich wildlife of Brazil reflects the variety of natural habitats. Much of it, however, remains largely undocumented, and new species are regularly found.[citation needed] Scientists estimate that the total number of plant and animal species in Brazil could approach four million.[139] Larger mammals include pumas, jaguars, ocelots, rare bush dogs, and foxes; peccaries, tapirs, anteaters, sloths, opossums, and armadillos are abundant. Deer are plentiful in the south, and many species of New World monkeys are found in the northern rain forests.[139][140] Concern for the environment has grown in response to global interest in environmental issues.[141] Environment The natural heritage of Brazil is severely threatened by cattle ranching and agriculture, logging, mining, resettlement, oil and gas extraction, over-fishing, wildlife trade, dams and infrastructure, water contamination, climate change, fire, and invasive species.[138] In many areas of the country, the natural environment is threatened by development.[142] Construction of highways has opened up previously remote areas for agriculture and settlement; dams have flooded valleys and inundated wildlife habitats; and mines have scarred and polluted the landscape.[141][143] At least 70 dams are said to be planned for the Amazon region, including controversial Belo Monte hydroelectric dam.[144] Politics Main article: Politics of Brazil The National Congress in Brasília, the capital of Brazil. The Brazilian Federation is the "indissoluble union" of three distinct political entities: the States, the Municipalities and the Federal District.[12] The Union, the states and the Federal District, and the municipalities, are the "spheres of government". The Federation is set on five fundamental principles:[12] sovereignty, citizenship, dignity of human beings, the social values of labour and freedom of enterprise, and political pluralism. The classic tripartite branches of government (executive, legislative, and judicial under the checks and balances system), is formally established by the Constitution.[12] The executive and legislative are organized independently in all three spheres of government, while the judiciary is organized only at the federal and state/Federal District spheres. All members of the executive and legislative branches are directly elected.[145][146][147] Judges and other judicial officials are appointed after passing entry exams.[145] Brazil has a multi-party system for most of its history. Voting is compulsory for the literate between 18 and 70 years old and optional for illiterates and those between 16 and 18 or beyond 70.[12] Together with several smaller parties, four political parties stand out: Workers' Party (PT), Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), and Democrats (DEM). Almost all governmental and administrative functions are exercised by authorities and agencies affiliated to the Executive. The form of government is that of a democratic republic, with a presidential system.[12] The president is both head of state and head of government of the Union and is elected for a four-year term,[12] with the possibility of re-election for a second successive term. The current president is Dilma Rousseff who was inaugurated on January 1, 2011.[148] The President appoints the Ministers of State, who assist in government.[12] Legislative houses in each political entity are the main source of law in Brazil. The National Congress is the Federation's bicameral legislature, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate. Judiciary authorities exercise jurisdictional duties almost exclusively. Fifteen political parties are represented in Congress. It is common for politicians to switch parties, and thus the proportion of congressional seats held by particular parties changes regularly. The largest political parties are the Workers' Party (PT), Democrats (DEM), Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB-center), Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB), Progressive Party (PP), Brazilian Labor Party (PTB), Liberal Party (PL), Brazilian Socialist Party (PSB), Popular Socialist Party (PPS), Democratic Labor Party (PDT), and the Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB).[149] Law Main articles: Law of Brazil and Crime in Brazil Supreme Federal Tribunal. Brazilian law is based on Roman-Germanic traditions[150] and civil law concepts prevail over common law practice. Most of Brazilian law is codified, although non-codified statutes also represent a substantial part, playing a complementary role. Court decisions set out interpretive guidelines; however, they are seldom binding on other specific cases. Doctrinal works and the works of academic jurists have strong influence in law creation and in law cases. The legal system is based on the Federal Constitution, which was promulgated on 5 October 1988, and is the fundamental law of Brazil. All other legislation and court decisions must conform to its rules.[151] As of April 2007, there have been 53 amendments. States have their own constitutions, which must not contradict the Federal Constitution.[152] Municipalities and the Federal District have "organic laws" (leis orgânicas) which act in a similar way to constitutions.[12][153] Legislative entities are the main source of statutes, although in certain matters judiciary and executive bodies may enact legal norms.[12] Jurisdiction is administered by the judiciary entities, although in rare situations the Federal Constitution allows the Federal Senate to pass on legal judgments.[12] There are also specialized military, labor, and electoral courts.[12] The highest court is the Supreme Federal Tribunal. This system has been criticised over the last few decades for the slow pace at which final decisions are issued. Lawsuits on appeal may take several years to resolve, and in some cases more than a decade elapses before definitive rulings are made.[154] Nevertheless, the Supreme Federal Tribunal was the first court in the world to transmit its sessions on television, and also via Youtube.[155][156] More recently, in December 2009, the Supreme Court adopted Twitter to display items on the day planner of the ministers, to inform the daily actions of the Court and the most important decisions made by them.[157] Brazil continues to have high crime rates in a number of statistics, despite recent improvements. More than 500,000 people have been killed by firearms in Brazil between 1979 and 2003, according to a new report by the United Nations.[158] In 2010, there were 473,600 people incarcerated in Brazilian prisons and jails.[159] Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Brazil States hosting a diplomatic mission of Brazil. Brazil is a political and economic leader in Latin America.[160][161] However, social and economic problems prevent it from becoming an effective global power.[162] Between World War II and 1990, both democratic and military governments sought to expand Brazil's influence in the world by pursuing a state-led industrial policy and an independent foreign policy. More recently, the country has aimed to strengthen ties with other South American countries, and engage in multilateral diplomacy through the United Nations and the Organization of American States.[163] Brazil's current foreign policy is based on the country's position as: a regional power in Latin America, a leader among developing countries, and an emerging world power.[164] In general, current Brazilian foreign policy reflects multilateralism, peaceful dispute settlement, and nonintervention in the affairs of other countries.[165] The Brazilian Constitution also determines that the country shall seek the economic, political, social and cultural integration of the nations of Latin America.[12][166][167][168] An increasingly well-developed tool of Brazil's foreign policy is providing aid as a donor to other developing countries[169]. Brazil does not just use its growing economic strength to provide financial aid, but it also provides high levels of expertise and most importantly of all, a quiet non-confrontational diplomacy to improve governance levels[169]. Total aid is estimated to be around $1 billion per year that includes[169]: * technical cooperation of around $480 million ($30 million in 2010 provided directly by the Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC)) * an estimated $450 million for in-kind expertise provided by Brazilian institutions specialising in technical cooperation In addition, Brazil manages a peacekeeping mission in Haiti ($350 million) and makes in-kind contributions to the World Food Programme ($300 million)[169]. This is in addition to humanitarian assistance and contributions to multilateral development agencies. The scale of this aid places it on par with China and India and ahead of many western donors[169]. The Brazilian South-South aid has been described as a "global model in waiting".[170] Military Main article: Brazilian Armed Forces Aircraft carrier NAE São Paulo of the Brazilian Navy. The armed forces of Brazil consist of the Brazilian Army, the Brazilian Navy, and the Brazilian Air Force. With a total of 371,199 active personnel,[171] they comprise the largest armed force in Latin America.[172] The Army is responsible for land-based military operations and has 235,978 active personnel.[173] The Military Police (States' Military Police) is described as an ancillary force of the Army by the constitution, but is under the control of each state's governor.[12] The Navy is responsible for naval operations and for guarding Brazilian territorial waters. It is the oldest of the Brazilian armed forces and the only navy in Latin America to operate an aircraft carrier, the NAe São Paulo (formerly FS Foch of the French Navy).[174] The Air Force is the aerial warfare branch of the Brazilian armed forces, and the largest air force in Latin America, with about 700 manned aircraft in service.[175] Administrative divisions Main articles: States of Brazil and Municipalities of Brazil See also: Regions of Brazil Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean North Region Northeast Region Central-West Region Southeast Region South Region Acre Amazonas Pará Roraima Amapá Rondônia Tocantins Maranhão Bahia Piauí Ceará Rio Grande do Norte Paraíba Pernambuco Alagoas Sergipe Mato Grosso Mato Grosso do Sul Federal District Goiás Minas Gerais São Paulo Rio de Janeiro Espírito Santo Paraná Santa Catarina Rio Grande do Sul Argentina Bolivia Chile Colombia French Guiana Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Brazil is a federation composed of twenty-six States, one federal district (which contains the capital city, Brasília) and municipalities.[12] States have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive a share of taxes collected by the Federal government. They have a governor and a unicameral legislative body elected directly by their voters. They also have independent Courts of Law for common justice. Despite this, states have much less autonomy to create their own laws than in the United States. For example, criminal and civil laws can only be voted by the federal bicameral Congress and are uniform throughout the country.[12] The states and the federal district may be grouped into regions: Northern, Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and Southern. The Brazilian regions are merely geographical, not political or administrative divisions, and they do not have any specific form of government. Although defined by law, Brazilian regions are useful mainly for statistical purposes, and also to define the application of federal funds in development projects. Municipalities, as the states, have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive a share of taxes collected by the Union and state government.[12] Each has a mayor and an elected legislative body, but no separate Court of Law. Indeed, a Court of Law organized by the state can encompass many municipalities in a single justice administrative division called comarca (county). Economy Main article: Economy of Brazil An Embraer ERJ-135 commercial jet. Brazil is the world's third largest aircraft producer. Brazil is the largest national economy in Latin America, the world's eighth largest economy at market exchange rates and the ninth largest in purchasing power parity (PPP), according to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Brazil has a free market economy with abundant natural resources. The Brazilian economy has been predicted to become one of the five largest in the world in the decades to come, the GDP per capita following and growing.[176] Its current GDP (PPP) per capita is $10,200, putting Brazil in the 64th position according to World Bank data. It has large and developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing and service sectors, as well as a large labor pool.[15] Brazilian exports are booming, creating a new generation of tycoons.[177] Major export products include aircraft, electrical equipment, automobiles, ethanol, textiles, footwear, iron ore, steel, coffee, orange juice, soybeans and corned beef.[178] The country has been expanding its presence in international financial and commodities markets, and is one of a group of four emerging economies called the BRIC countries.[179] Brazil pegged its currency, the real, to the U.S. dollar in 1994. However, after the East Asian financial crisis, the Russian default in 1998[180] and the series of adverse financial events that followed it, the Central Bank of Brazil temporarily changed its monetary policy to a managed-float scheme while undergoing a currency crisis, until definitively changing the exchange regime to free-float in January 1999.[181] Brazil received an International Monetary Fund rescue package in mid-2002 of $30.4 billion,[182] then a record sum. Brazil's central bank paid back the IMF loan in 2005, although it was not due to be repaid until 2006.[183] One of the issues the Central Bank of Brazil recently dealt with was an excess of speculative short-term capital inflows to the country, which may have contributed to a fall in the value of the U.S. dollar against the real during that period.[184] Nonetheless, foreign direct investment (FDI), related to long-term, less speculative investment in production, is estimated to be $193.8 billion for 2007.[185] Inflation monitoring and control currently plays a major part in the Central bank's role of setting out short-term interest rates as a monetary policy measure.[186] Components and energy Main articles: Agriculture in Brazil, Industry in Brazil, and Energy policy of Brazil Itaipu Dam, the world's largest hydroelectric plant by energy generation and second-largest by installed capacity. Brazil's economy is diverse,[187] encompassing agriculture, industry, and many services.[177][188][189][190] The recent economic strength has been due in part to a global boom in commodities prices with exports from beef to soybeans soaring.[189][190] Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishing accounted for 5.1% of the gross domestic product in 2007,[191] a performance that puts agribusiness in a position of distinction in terms of Brazil's trade balance, in spite of trade barriers and subsidizing policies adopted by the developed countries.[vague][192][193] The industry — from automobiles, steel and petrochemicals to computers, aircraft, and consumer durables— accounted for 30.8% of the gross domestic product.[191] Industry, which is often technologically advanced, is highly concentrated in metropolitan São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Campinas, Porto Alegre, and Belo Horizonte.[194] Brazil is the world's tenth largest energy consumer with much of its energy coming from renewable sources, particularly hydroelectricity and ethanol; nonrenewable energy is mainly produced from oil and natural gas.[195] A global power in agriculture and natural resources, Brazil experienced tremendous economic growth over the past three decades.[196] It is expected to become a major oil producer and exporter, having recently made huge oil discoveries.[197][198][199] The governmental agencies responsible for the energy policy are the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the National Council for Energy Policy, the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels, and the National Agency of Electricity.[200][201] Science and technology Main article: Brazilian science and technology Brazilian National Laboratory of Synchrotron Light in Campinas. Technological research in Brazil is largely carried out in public universities and research institutes. But more than 73% of funding for basic research still comes from government sources.[202] Some of Brazil's most notable technological hubs are the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, the Butantan Institute, the Air Force's Aerospace Technical Center, the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation and the INPE. The Brazilian Space Agency has the most advanced space program in Latin America, with significant capabilities[vague] in launch vehicles, launch sites and satellite manufacturing.[203] Uranium is enriched at the Resende Nuclear Fuel Factory to fuel the country's energy demands and plans are underway to build the country's first nuclear submarine.[204] Brazil is one of the three countries in Latin America[205] with an operational Synchrotron Laboratory, a research facility on physics, chemistry, material science and life sciences. Transport Main article: Transport in Brazil BR-116 highway in the outskirts of Fortaleza. Brazil has a large and diverse transport network. Roads are the primary carriers of freight and passenger traffic. The road system totaled 1.98 million km (1.23 million mi) in 2002. The total of paved roads increased from 35,496 km (22,056 mi) in 1967 to 184,140 km (114,425 mi) in 2002.[206] Recife Airport. Brazil's railway system has been declining since 1945, when emphasis shifted to highway construction. The total length of railway track was 30,875 km (19,186 mi) in 2002, as compared with 31,848 km (19,789 mi) in 1970. Most of the railway system belongs to the Federal Railroad Corp., with a majority government interest; there are also seven lines which the government privatized in 1997.[207] The São Paulo Metro was the first underground transit system in Brazil. The other metro systems are in Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Recife, Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Teresina, Fortaleza, and Salvador. There are about 2,500 airports in Brazil, including landing fields: the second largest number in the world, after the United States.[208] São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport, near São Paulo, is the largest and busiest airport, handling the vast majority of popular and commercial traffic of the country and connecting the city with virtually all major cities across the world.[209] Coastal shipping links widely separated parts of the country. Bolivia and Pathe

Brazil

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Federative Republic of Brazil
República Federativa do Brasil (Portuguese)
Flag Coat of arms
Motto"Ordem e Progresso"
(Portuguese)
"Order and Progress"
AnthemHino Nacional Brasileiro
(Portuguese)
"Brazilian National Anthem"
National seal
Selo Nacional do Brasil National Seal of Brazil (color).svg
(Portuguese)
"National Seal of Brazil"
Capital Brasília
15°45′S 47°57′W / 15.75°S 47.95°W / -15.75; -47.95
Largest city São Paulo
Official language(s) Portuguese
Ethnic groups (2008
[1]
)
48.43% White
43.80% Brown (Multiracial)
6.84% Black
0.58% Asian
0.28% Amerindian
Demonym Brazilian
Government Federal presidential constitutional republic
 -  President Dilma Rousseff (PT)
 -  Vice President Michel Temer (PMDB)
 -  President of the Chamber of Deputies Marco Maia (PT)
 -  President of the Senate José Sarney (PMDB)
 -  Chief Justice Cezar Peluso
Legislature National Congress
 -  Upper House Federal Senate
 -  Lower House Chamber of Deputies
Independence from Kingdom of Portugal 
 -  Declared 7 September 1822 
 -  Recognized 29 August 1825 
 -  Republic 15 November 1889 
 -  Current constitution 5 October 1988 
Area
 -  Total 8,514,877 km2 (5th)
3,287,597 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.65
Population
 -   estimate 190,732,694 [2] (5th)
 -  Density 22/km2 (182nd)
57/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $2.013 trillion[3] 
 -  Per capita $10,513[3] 
GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $1.574 trillion[3] 
 -  Per capita $8,220[3] 
Gini (2009) 49.3[4] 
HDI (2010) 0.699[5] (high) (73th)
Currency Real (R$) (BRL)
Time zone BRT[6] (UTC-2 to -4[6])
 -  Summer (DST) BRST (UTC-2 to -4)
Date formats dd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Drives on the right
ISO 3166 code BR
Internet TLD .br
Calling code +55
Brazil (pronounced /brəˈzɪl/ ( listen); Portuguese: Brasil, IPA: [bɾaˈziw]), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil[7][8] (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil, About this sound listen ), is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population.[9][10] It is the only Portuguese-speaking country in the Americas and the largest lusophone country in the world.[9]
Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of over 7,491 kilometers (4,655 mi).[9] It is bordered on the north by Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and the French overseas department of French Guiana; on the northwest by Colombia; on the west by Bolivia and Peru; on the southwest by Argentina and Paraguay and on the south by Uruguay. Numerous archipelagos form part of Brazilian territory, such as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, and Trindade and Martim Vaz.[9] It has borders with all other South American countries apart from Ecuador and Chile.
Brazil was a colony of Portugal from the landing of Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500 until 1815, when it was elevated to United Kingdom with Portugal and Algarves. The colonial bond was in fact broken in 1808, when the capital of the Portuguese Kingdom was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, after Napoleon invaded Portugal.[11] The independence from Portugal was achieved in 1822. Initially independent as the Empire of Brazil, the country has been a republic since 1889, although the bicameral legislature, now called Congress, dates back to 1824, when the first constitution was ratified.[11] Its current Constitution defines Brazil as a Federal Republic.[12] The Federation is formed by the union of the Federal District, the 26 States, and the 5,564 Municipalities.[12][13]
The Brazilian economy is the world's eighth largest economy by nominal GDP[14] and the ninth largest by purchasing power parity.[15] Brazil is one of the world's fastest growing major economies. Economic reforms have given the country new international recognition.[16] Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, CPLP, Latin Union, the Organization of Ibero-American States, Mercosul and the Union of South American Nations, and is one of the BRIC Countries. Brazil is also home to a diversity of wildlife, natural environments, and extensive natural resources in a variety of protected habitats.[9]

Contents

[show]

History

Etymology

The etymology of Brazil remains unclear. Traditionally, the word "Brazil" comes from the brazilwood, a timber tree which many sailors traded from Brazilian regions to Europe in the 16th century.[17] In Portuguese brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from Latin brasa ("ember") and the suffix -il (from -iculum or -ilium).[18][19][20] This theory is taught as official in schools of Brazil and Portugal, but some[who?] Brazilian scholars have postulated that the word is older, being found in the language of ancient Phoenicians though some think it has Celtic origins.[21] These people kept the trade of a red dye extracted from a mineral which operated mines in Iberia to Ireland. In fact, the legendary Irish island of Hy-Brazil is seen by some[who?] (and was also to 16th century scholars) as one of the most likely etymological sources for "Brazil".[17] In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama" — it was the name the natives gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees."

Portuguese colonization and territorial expansion

The land now called Brazil was claimed by Portugal in April 1500, on the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral.[22] The Portuguese encountered stone age natives divided into several tribes, most of whom shared the same Tupi-Guarani linguistic family, and fought among themselves.[23]
Colonization was effectively begun in 1534—though the first settlement was founded in 1532—, when Dom João III divided the territory into twelve hereditary captaincies,[24][25] but this arrangement proved problematic and in 1549 the king assigned a Governor-General to administer the entire colony.[25][26] The Portuguese assimilated some of the native tribes[27] while others were enslaved or exterminated in long wars or by European diseases to which they had no immunity.[28][29] By the mid-16th century, sugar had become Brazil's most important export[23][30] and the Portuguese imported African slaves[31][32] to cope with the increasing international demand.[28][33]
The first Christian mass in Brazil, 1500.
Through wars against the French, the Portuguese slowly expanded their territory to the southeast, taking Rio de Janeiro in 1567, and to the northwest, taking São Luís in 1615.[34] They sent military expeditions to the Amazon rainforest and conquered British and Dutch strongholds,[35] founding villages and forts from 1669.[36] In 1680 they reached the far south and founded Sacramento on the bank of the Rio de la Plata, in the Eastern Strip region (present-day Uruguay).[37]
At the end of the 17th century, sugar exports started to decline[38] but beginning in the 1690s, the discovery of gold by explorers in the region that would later be called Minas Gerais (General Mines) in current Mato Grosso and Goiás, saved the colony from imminent collapse.[39] From all over Brazil, as well as from Portugal, thousands of immigrants came to the mines.[40]
The Spanish tried to prevent Portuguese expansion into the territory that belonged to them according to the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, and succeeded in conquering the Eastern Strip in 1777. However, this was in vain as the Treaty of San Ildefonso, signed in the same year, confirmed Portuguese sovereignty over all lands proceeding from its territorial expansion, thus creating most of the current Brazilian borders.[41]
In 1808, the Portuguese royal family, fleeing the troops of the French Emperor Napoleon I that were invading Portugal and most of Central Europe, established themselves in the city of Rio de Janeiro, which thus became the seat of the entire Portuguese Empire.[42] In 1815 Dom João VI, then regent on behalf of his incapacitated mother, elevated Brazil from colony to sovereign Kingdom united with Portugal.[42] In 1809 the Portuguese invaded French Guiana (which was returned to France in 1817)[43] and in 1816 the Eastern Strip, subsequently renamed Cisplatina[44] (but Brazil lost it in 1828 when it became an independent nation known as Uruguay).[45]

Independence and empire

King João VI returned to Europe on 26 April 1821, leaving his elder son Prince Pedro de Alcântara as regent to rule Brazil.[46] The Portuguese government attempted to turn Brazil into a colony once again, thus depriving it of its achievements since 1808.[47] The Brazilians refused to yield and Prince Pedro stood by them declaring the country's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822.[48] On 12 October 1822, Pedro was declared the first Emperor of Brazil and crowned Dom Pedro I on 1 December 1822.[49]
Declaration of the Brazilian independence by Emperor Pedro I on 7 September 1822.
At that time almost all Brazilians were in favor of a monarchy and republicanism had little support.[50][51] The subsequent Brazilian War of Independence spread through almost the entire territory, with battles in the northern, northeastern, and southern regions.[52] The last Portuguese soldiers surrendered on 8 March 1824[53] and independence was recognized by Portugal on 29 August 1825.[54]
The first Brazilian constitution was promulgated on 25 March 1824, after its acceptance by the municipal councils across the country.[55][56][57][58] Pedro I abdicated on 7 April 1831 and went to Europe to reclaim his daughter’s crown, leaving behind his five year old son and heir, who was to become Dom Pedro II.[59] As the new emperor could not exert his constitutional prerogatives until he reached maturity, a regency was created.[60]
Disputes between political factions led to rebellions and an unstable, almost anarchical, regency.[61] The rebellious factions, however, were not in revolt against the monarchy,[62][63] even though some declared the secession of the provinces as independent republics, but only so long as Pedro II was a minor.[64] Because of this, Pedro II was prematurely declared of age and "Brazil was to enjoy nearly half a century of internal peace and rapid material progress."[65]
Brazilian forces (in blue uniform) engage the Paraguayan army (some in red uniform and other shirtless) during the War of the Triple Alliance.
Brazil won three international wars during the 58-year reign of Pedro II (the Platine War, the Uruguayan War and the War of the Triple Alliance)[66] and witnessed the consolidation of representative democracy, mainly due to successive elections and unrestricted freedom of the press.[67] Most importantly, slavery was extinguished after a slow but steady process that began with the end of the international traffic in slaves in 1850[68] and ended with the complete abolition of slavery in 1888.[69] The slave population had been in decline since Brazil's independence: in 1823, 29% of the Brazilian population were slaves but by 1887 this had fallen to 5%.[70]
When the monarchy was overthrown on 15 November 1889[71] there was little desire in Brazil to change the form of government[72] and Pedro II was at the height of his popularity among his subjects.[73][74] However, he "bore prime, perhaps sole, responsibility for his own overthrow."[75] After the death of his two sons, Pedro believed that "the imperial regime was destined to end with him."[76] He cared little for the regime's fate[77][78] and so neither did anything, nor allowed anyone else to do anything, to prevent the military coup, backed by former slave owners who resented the abolition of slavery.[79][80][81]

Old republic and Vargas era

The Brazilian coup d'état of 1930 raised Getúlio Vargas (center with military uniform but no hat) to power. He would rule the country for fifteen years.
The "early republican government was little more than a military dictatorship. The army dominated affairs both at Rio de Janeiro and in the states. Freedom of the press disappeared and elections were controlled by those in power".[71] In 1894 the republican civilians rose to power, opening a "prolonged cycle of civil war, financial disaster, and government incompetence."[82] By 1902, the government began a return to the policies pursued during the Empire, policies that promised peace and order at home and a restoration of Brazil's prestige abroad.[82] and was successful in negotiating several treaties that expanded (with the purchase of Acre) and secured the Brazilian boundaries.[83]
In the 1920s the country was plagued by several rebellions caused by young military officers.[84][85] By 1930, the regime was weakened and demoralized, which allowed the defeated presidential candidate Getúlio Vargas to lead a coup d'état and assume the presidency.[86] Vargas was supposed to assume the presidency temporarily but instead, he closed the National Congress, extinguished the Constitution, ruled with emergency powers and replaced the states' governors with his supporters.[87][88]
In 1935 Communists rebelled across the country and made an unsuccessful bid for power.[89] The communist threat, however, served as an excuse for Vargas to launch another coup d'état in 1937 and Brazil became a full dictatorship.[90][91] The repression of the opposition was brutal with more than 20,000 people imprisoned, internment camps created for political prisoners in distant regions of the country, widespread torture by the government agents of repression, and censorship of the press.[92][93]
Brazil remained neutral during the early years of World War II until the government declared war against the Axis powers in 1942.[94] Vargas then forced German, Japanese and Italian immigrants into concentration camps,[95] and, in 1944, sent troops to the battlefields in Italy.[96][97] With the allied victory in 1945 and the end of the Nazi-fascist regimes in Europe, Vargas's position became unsustainable and he was swiftly overthrown in a military coup.[98] Democracy was reinstated and General Eurico Gaspar Dutra was elected president and took office in 1946.[99] Vargas returned to power in 1951, this time democratically elected, but he was incapable of either governing under a democracy or of dealing with an active opposition, and he committed suicide in 1954.[100][101]

Military regime and contemporary era

Several brief interim governments succeeded after Vargas's suicide.[102] Juscelino Kubitscheck became president in 1956 and assumed a conciliatory posture towards the political opposition that allowed him to govern without major crises.[103] The economy and industrial sector grew remarkably,[104] but his greatest achievement was the construction of the new capital city of Brasília, inaugurated in 1960.[105] His successor was Jânio Quadros, who resigned in 1961 less than a year after taking office.[106] His vice-president, João Goulart, assumed the presidency, but aroused strong political opposition[107] and was deposed in April 1964 by a coup that resulted in a military regime.[108]
The new regime was intended to be transitory[109] but it gradually closed in on itself and became a full dictatorship with the promulgation of the Fifth Institutional Act in 1968.[110] The repression of the dictatorship's opponents, including urban guerrillas,[111] was harsh, but not as brutal as in other Latin American countries.[112] Due to the extraordinary economic growth, known as an "economic miracle", the regime reached its highest level of popularity in the years of repression.[113]
The transition from Fernando Henrique Cardoso to Luís Inácio Lula da Silva revealed that Brazil had finally succeeded in achieving its long-sought political stability.
General Ernesto Geisel became president in 1974 and began his project of re-democratization through a process that he said would be "slow, gradual and safe."[114][115] Geisel ended the military indiscipline that had plagued the country since 1889,[116] as well as the torture of political prisoners, censorship of the press,[117] and finally, the dictatorship itself, after he extinguished the Fifth Institutional Act.[110] However, the military regime continued, under his chosen successor General João Figueiredo, to complete the transition to full democracy.[118]
The civilians fully returned to power in 1985 when José Sarney assumed the presidency[119] but, by the end of his term, he had become extremely unpopular due to the uncontrollable economic crisis and unusually high inflation.[120] Sarney's unsuccessful government allowed the election in 1989 of the almost unknown Fernando Collor, who was subsequently impeached by the National Congress in 1992.[121] Collor was succeeded by his Vice-President Itamar Franco, who appointed Fernando Henrique Cardoso as Minister of Finance.
Cardoso produced a highly successful Plano Real (Royal or Real Plan)[122] that granted stability to the Brazilian economy[123] and he was elected as president in 1994 and again in 1998.[124] The peaceful transition of power to Luís Inácio Lula da Silva, who was elected in 2002 and re-elected in 2006, proved that Brazil had finally succeeded in achieving its long-sought political stability.[125]

Geography

Topography map of Brazil.
Brazil occupies a large area along the eastern coast of South America and includes much of the continent's interior,[126] sharing land borders with Uruguay to the south; Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest; Bolivia and Peru to the west; Colombia to the northwest; and Venezuela, Suriname, Guyana and the French overseas department of French Guiana to the north. It shares a border with every country in South America except for Ecuador and Chile. It also encompasses a number of oceanic archipelagos, such as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, and Trindade and Martim Vaz.[9] Its size, relief, climate, and natural resources make Brazil geographically diverse.[126] Including its Atlantic islands, Brazil lies between latitudes 6°N and 34°S, and longitudes 28° and 74°W.
Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world, after Russia, Canada, China and the United States, and third largest in the Americas; with a total area of 8,514,876.599 square kilometers (3,287,612 sq mi),[127] including 55,455 square kilometers (21,411 sq mi) of water.[9] It spans three time zones; from UTC-4 in the western states, to UTC-3 in the eastern states (and the official time of Brazil) and UTC-2 in the Atlantic islands.[6]
Brazilian topography is also diverse and includes hills, mountains, plains, highlands, and scrublands. Much of the terrain lies between 200 metres (660 ft) and 800 metres (2,600 ft) in elevation.[128] The main upland area occupies most of the southern half of the country.[128] The northwestern parts of the plateau consist of broad, rolling terrain broken by low, rounded hills.[128]
The southeastern section is more rugged, with a complex mass of ridges and mountain ranges reaching elevations of up to 1,200 metres (3,900 ft).[128] These ranges include the Mantiqueira and Espinhaço mountains and the Serra do Mar.[128] In the north, the Guiana Highlands form a major drainage divide, separating rivers that flow south into the Amazon Basin from rivers that empty into the Orinoco River system, in Venezuela, to the north. The highest point in Brazil is the Pico da Neblina at 2,994 metres (9,823 ft), and the lowest is the Atlantic Ocean.[9]
Brazil has a dense and complex system of rivers, one of the world's most extensive, with eight major drainage basins, all of which drain into the Atlantic.[129] Major rivers include the Amazon (the world's second-longest river and the largest in terms of volume of water), the Paraná and its major tributary the Iguaçu (which includes the Iguazu Falls), the Negro, São Francisco, Xingu, Madeira and Tapajós rivers.[129]

Climate

The climate of Brazil comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large area and varied topography, but most of the country is tropical.[9] According to the Köppen system, Brazil hosts five major climatic subtypes: equatorial, tropical, semiarid, highland tropical, temperate, and subtropical. The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from equatorial rainforests in the north and semiarid deserts in the northeast, to temperate coniferous forests in the south and tropical savannas in central Brazil.[130] Many regions have starkly different microclimates.[131][132]
An equatorial climate characterizes much of northern Brazil. There is no real dry season, but there are some variations in the period of the year when most rain falls.[130] Temperatures average 25 °C (77 °F),[132] with more significant temperature variation between night and day than between seasons.[131]
Over central Brazil rainfall is more seasonal, characteristic of a savanna climate.[131] This region is as extensive as the Amazon basin but has a very different climate as it lies farther south at a higher altitude.[130] In the interior northeast, seasonal rainfall is even more extreme. The semiarid climatic region generally receives less than 800 millimetres (31.5 in) of rain,[133] most of which generally falls in a period of three to five months of the year[134] and occasionally less than this, creating long periods of drought.[131] Brazil's 1877–78 Grande Seca (Great Drought), the most severe ever recorded in Brazil,[135] caused approximately half a million deaths.[136] The one from 1915 was devastating too.[137]
South of Bahia, near São Paulo, the distribution of rainfall changes, with rain falling throughout the year .[130] The south enjoys temperate conditions, with cool winters and average annual temperatures not exceeding 18 °C (64.4 °F);[132] winter frosts are quite common, with occasional snowfall in the higher areas.[130][131]

Biodiversity


The Macaw is a typical animal of Brazil. The country has one of the world's most diverse populations of birds and amphibians. In the right the Amazon Rainforest, the largest tropical forest in the world..
Brazil's large territory comprises different ecosystems, such as the Amazon Rainforest, recognized as having the greatest biological diversity in the world,[138] with the Atlantic Forest and the Cerrado, sustaining the greatest biodiversity.[139] In the south, the Araucaria pine forest grows under temperate conditions.[139]
The rich wildlife of Brazil reflects the variety of natural habitats. Much of it, however, remains largely undocumented, and new species are regularly found.[citation needed] Scientists estimate that the total number of plant and animal species in Brazil could approach four million.[139]
Larger mammals include pumas, jaguars, ocelots, rare bush dogs, and foxes; peccaries, tapirs, anteaters, sloths, opossums, and armadillos are abundant. Deer are plentiful in the south, and many species of New World monkeys are found in the northern rain forests.[139][140] Concern for the environment has grown in response to global interest in environmental issues.[141]

Environment

The natural heritage of Brazil is severely threatened by cattle ranching and agriculture, logging, mining, resettlement, oil and gas extraction, over-fishing, wildlife trade, dams and infrastructure, water contamination, climate change, fire, and invasive species.[138] In many areas of the country, the natural environment is threatened by development.[142] Construction of highways has opened up previously remote areas for agriculture and settlement; dams have flooded valleys and inundated wildlife habitats; and mines have scarred and polluted the landscape.[141][143] At least 70 dams are said to be planned for the Amazon region, including controversial Belo Monte hydroelectric dam.[144]

Politics

The National Congress in Brasília, the capital of Brazil.
The Brazilian Federation is the "indissoluble union" of three distinct political entities: the States, the Municipalities and the Federal District.[12] The Union, the states and the Federal District, and the municipalities, are the "spheres of government". The Federation is set on five fundamental principles:[12] sovereignty, citizenship, dignity of human beings, the social values of labour and freedom of enterprise, and political pluralism. The classic tripartite branches of government (executive, legislative, and judicial under the checks and balances system), is formally established by the Constitution.[12] The executive and legislative are organized independently in all three spheres of government, while the judiciary is organized only at the federal and state/Federal District spheres.
All members of the executive and legislative branches are directly elected.[145][146][147] Judges and other judicial officials are appointed after passing entry exams.[145] Brazil has a multi-party system for most of its history. Voting is compulsory for the literate between 18 and 70 years old and optional for illiterates and those between 16 and 18 or beyond 70.[12] Together with several smaller parties, four political parties stand out: Workers' Party (PT), Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), and Democrats (DEM). Almost all governmental and administrative functions are exercised by authorities and agencies affiliated to the Executive.
The form of government is that of a democratic republic, with a presidential system.[12] The president is both head of state and head of government of the Union and is elected for a four-year term,[12] with the possibility of re-election for a second successive term. The current president is Dilma Rousseff who was inaugurated on January 1, 2011.[148] The President appoints the Ministers of State, who assist in government.[12] Legislative houses in each political entity are the main source of law in Brazil. The National Congress is the Federation's bicameral legislature, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate. Judiciary authorities exercise jurisdictional duties almost exclusively.
Fifteen political parties are represented in Congress. It is common for politicians to switch parties, and thus the proportion of congressional seats held by particular parties changes regularly. The largest political parties are the Workers' Party (PT), Democrats (DEM), Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB-center), Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB), Progressive Party (PP), Brazilian Labor Party (PTB), Liberal Party (PL), Brazilian Socialist Party (PSB), Popular Socialist Party (PPS), Democratic Labor Party (PDT), and the Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB).[149]

Law

Brazilian law is based on Roman-Germanic traditions[150] and civil law concepts prevail over common law practice. Most of Brazilian law is codified, although non-codified statutes also represent a substantial part, playing a complementary role. Court decisions set out interpretive guidelines; however, they are seldom binding on other specific cases. Doctrinal works and the works of academic jurists have strong influence in law creation and in law cases.
The legal system is based on the Federal Constitution, which was promulgated on 5 October 1988, and is the fundamental law of Brazil. All other legislation and court decisions must conform to its rules.[151] As of April 2007, there have been 53 amendments. States have their own constitutions, which must not contradict the Federal Constitution.[152] Municipalities and the Federal District have "organic laws" (leis orgânicas) which act in a similar way to constitutions.[12][153] Legislative entities are the main source of statutes, although in certain matters judiciary and executive bodies may enact legal norms.[12] Jurisdiction is administered by the judiciary entities, although in rare situations the Federal Constitution allows the Federal Senate to pass on legal judgments.[12] There are also specialized military, labor, and electoral courts.[12] The highest court is the Supreme Federal Tribunal.
This system has been criticised over the last few decades for the slow pace at which final decisions are issued. Lawsuits on appeal may take several years to resolve, and in some cases more than a decade elapses before definitive rulings are made.[154] Nevertheless, the Supreme Federal Tribunal was the first court in the world to transmit its sessions on television, and also via Youtube.[155][156] More recently, in December 2009, the Supreme Court adopted Twitter to display items on the day planner of the ministers, to inform the daily actions of the Court and the most important decisions made by them.[157]
Brazil continues to have high crime rates in a number of statistics, despite recent improvements. More than 500,000 people have been killed by firearms in Brazil between 1979 and 2003, according to a new report by the United Nations.[158] In 2010, there were 473,600 people incarcerated in Brazilian prisons and jails.[159]

Foreign relations

States hosting a diplomatic mission of Brazil.
Brazil is a political and economic leader in Latin America.[160][161] However, social and economic problems prevent it from becoming an effective global power.[162] Between World War II and 1990, both democratic and military governments sought to expand Brazil's influence in the world by pursuing a state-led industrial policy and an independent foreign policy. More recently, the country has aimed to strengthen ties with other South American countries, and engage in multilateral diplomacy through the United Nations and the Organization of American States.[163]
Brazil's current foreign policy is based on the country's position as: a regional power in Latin America, a leader among developing countries, and an emerging world power.[164] In general, current Brazilian foreign policy reflects multilateralism, peaceful dispute settlement, and nonintervention in the affairs of other countries.[165] The Brazilian Constitution also determines that the country shall seek the economic, political, social and cultural integration of the nations of Latin America.[12][166][167][168]
An increasingly well-developed tool of Brazil's foreign policy is providing aid as a donor to other developing countries[169]. Brazil does not just use its growing economic strength to provide financial aid, but it also provides high levels of expertise and most importantly of all, a quiet non-confrontational diplomacy to improve governance levels[169]. Total aid is estimated to be around $1 billion per year that includes[169]:
  • technical cooperation of around $480 million ($30 million in 2010 provided directly by the Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC))
  • an estimated $450 million for in-kind expertise provided by Brazilian institutions specialising in technical cooperation
In addition, Brazil manages a peacekeeping mission in Haiti ($350 million) and makes in-kind contributions to the World Food Programme ($300 million)[169]. This is in addition to humanitarian assistance and contributions to multilateral development agencies. The scale of this aid places it on par with China and India and ahead of many western donors[169]. The Brazilian South-South aid has been described as a "global model in waiting".[170]

Military

Aircraft carrier NAE São Paulo of the Brazilian Navy.
The armed forces of Brazil consist of the Brazilian Army, the Brazilian Navy, and the Brazilian Air Force. With a total of 371,199 active personnel,[171] they comprise the largest armed force in Latin America.[172] The Army is responsible for land-based military operations and has 235,978 active personnel.[173]
The Military Police (States' Military Police) is described as an ancillary force of the Army by the constitution, but is under the control of each state's governor.[12] The Navy is responsible for naval operations and for guarding Brazilian territorial waters. It is the oldest of the Brazilian armed forces and the only navy in Latin America to operate an aircraft carrier, the NAe São Paulo (formerly FS Foch of the French Navy).[174] The Air Force is the aerial warfare branch of the Brazilian armed forces, and the largest air force in Latin America, with about 700 manned aircraft in service.[175]

Administrative divisions

Brazil is a federation composed of twenty-six States, one federal district (which contains the capital city, Brasília) and municipalities.[12] States have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive a share of taxes collected by the Federal government. They have a governor and a unicameral legislative body elected directly by their voters. They also have independent Courts of Law for common justice. Despite this, states have much less autonomy to create their own laws than in the United States. For example, criminal and civil laws can only be voted by the federal bicameral Congress and are uniform throughout the country.[12]
The states and the federal district may be grouped into regions: Northern, Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and Southern. The Brazilian regions are merely geographical, not political or administrative divisions, and they do not have any specific form of government. Although defined by law, Brazilian regions are useful mainly for statistical purposes, and also to define the application of federal funds in development projects.
Municipalities, as the states, have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive a share of taxes collected by the Union and state government.[12] Each has a mayor and an elected legislative body, but no separate Court of Law. Indeed, a Court of Law organized by the state can encompass many municipalities in a single justice administrative division called comarca (county).

Economy

An Embraer ERJ-135 commercial jet. Brazil is the world's third largest aircraft producer.
Brazil is the largest national economy in Latin America, the world's eighth largest economy at market exchange rates and the ninth largest in purchasing power parity (PPP), according to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Brazil has a free market economy with abundant natural resources. The Brazilian economy has been predicted to become one of the five largest in the world in the decades to come, the GDP per capita following and growing.[176] Its current GDP (PPP) per capita is $10,200, putting Brazil in the 64th position according to World Bank data. It has large and developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing and service sectors, as well as a large labor pool.[15]
Brazilian exports are booming, creating a new generation of tycoons.[177] Major export products include aircraft, electrical equipment, automobiles, ethanol, textiles, footwear, iron ore, steel, coffee, orange juice, soybeans and corned beef.[178] The country has been expanding its presence in international financial and commodities markets, and is one of a group of four emerging economies called the BRIC countries.[179]
Brazil pegged its currency, the real, to the U.S. dollar in 1994. However, after the East Asian financial crisis, the Russian default in 1998[180] and the series of adverse financial events that followed it, the Central Bank of Brazil temporarily changed its monetary policy to a managed-float scheme while undergoing a currency crisis, until definitively changing the exchange regime to free-float in January 1999.[181]
Brazil received an International Monetary Fund rescue package in mid-2002 of $30.4 billion,[182] then a record sum. Brazil's central bank paid back the IMF loan in 2005, although it was not due to be repaid until 2006.[183] One of the issues the Central Bank of Brazil recently dealt with was an excess of speculative short-term capital inflows to the country, which may have contributed to a fall in the value of the U.S. dollar against the real during that period.[184] Nonetheless, foreign direct investment (FDI), related to long-term, less speculative investment in production, is estimated to be $193.8 billion for 2007.[185] Inflation monitoring and control currently plays a major part in the Central bank's role of setting out short-term interest rates as a monetary policy measure.[186]

Components and energy

Itaipu Dam, the world's largest hydroelectric plant by energy generation and second-largest by installed capacity.
Brazil's economy is diverse,[187] encompassing agriculture, industry, and many services.[177][188][189][190] The recent economic strength has been due in part to a global boom in commodities prices with exports from beef to soybeans soaring.[189][190] Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishing accounted for 5.1% of the gross domestic product in 2007,[191] a performance that puts agribusiness in a position of distinction in terms of Brazil's trade balance, in spite of trade barriers and subsidizing policies adopted by the developed countries.[vague][192][193]
The industry — from automobiles, steel and petrochemicals to computers, aircraft, and consumer durables— accounted for 30.8% of the gross domestic product.[191] Industry, which is often technologically advanced, is highly concentrated in metropolitan São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Campinas, Porto Alegre, and Belo Horizonte.[194]
Brazil is the world's tenth largest energy consumer with much of its energy coming from renewable sources, particularly hydroelectricity and ethanol; nonrenewable energy is mainly produced from oil and natural gas.[195] A global power in agriculture and natural resources, Brazil experienced tremendous economic growth over the past three decades.[196] It is expected to become a major oil producer and exporter, having recently made huge oil discoveries.[197][198][199] The governmental agencies responsible for the energy policy are the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the National Council for Energy Policy, the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels, and the National Agency of Electricity.[200][201]

Science and technology

Technological research in Brazil is largely carried out in public universities and research institutes. But more than 73% of funding for basic research still comes from government sources.[202] Some of Brazil's most notable technological hubs are the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, the Butantan Institute, the Air Force's Aerospace Technical Center, the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation and the INPE. The Brazilian Space Agency has the most advanced space program in Latin America, with significant capabilities[vague] in launch vehicles, launch sites and satellite manufacturing.[203]
Uranium is enriched at the Resende Nuclear Fuel Factory to fuel the country's energy demands and plans are underway to build the country's first nuclear submarine.[204] Brazil is one of the three countries in Latin America[205] with an operational Synchrotron Laboratory, a research facility on physics, chemistry, material science and life sciences.

Transport

BR-116 highway in the outskirts of Fortaleza.
Brazil has a large and diverse transport network. Roads are the primary carriers of freight and passenger traffic. The road system totaled 1.98 million km (1.23 million mi) in 2002. The total of paved roads increased from 35,496 km (22,056 mi) in 1967 to 184,140 km (114,425 mi) in 2002.[206]
Brazil's railway system has been declining since 1945, when emphasis shifted to highway construction. The total length of railway track was 30,875 km (19,186 mi) in 2002, as compared with 31,848 km (19,789 mi) in 1970. Most of the railway system belongs to the Federal Railroad Corp., with a majority government interest; there are also seven lines which the government privatized in 1997.[207] The São Paulo Metro was the first underground transit system in Brazil. The other metro systems are in Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Recife, Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Teresina, Fortaleza, and Salvador.
There are about 2,500 airports in Brazil, including landing fields: the second largest number in the world, after the United States.[208] São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport, near São Paulo, is the largest and busiest airport, handling the vast majority of popular and commercial traffic of the country and connecting the city with virtually all major cities across the world.[209]
Coastal shipping links widely separated parts of the country. Bolivia and Paraguay have been given free ports at Santos. Of the 36 deep-water ports, Santos, Itajaí, Rio Grande, Paranaguá, Rio de Janeiro, Sepetiba, Vitória, Suape, Manaus and São Francisco do Sul are some of the

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